Review of Kalpas ||21||

1Suta said: Among the sages refulgent like fire, who resided in the Naimisa forest, there was an intelligent sage, well versed in the Vedas and was called Savarni.
2He was very eloquent. Standing ahead of them with humility he approached Vayu the highly majestic god who frequented that place to render favour to the Sattra-worshippers and asked him.
3Savarni requested: O all-pervading Lord! We wish to hear from you who are the observer of everything, the legends of the Purana, which are on a par with the Vedas.
4How did lord Brahma beget from his forehead, Lord Rudra of such a splendour, as his son?
5How was lord Brahma born of a lotus? How did his son Sarva obtain the status of a Rudra?
6-7How is it that Vishnu cherishes such unparalleled love towards Rudra? There is no doubt that gods always sing. “All gods as well as ganas consist (are of the form) of Vishnu. There is no other goal higher that attainment of Vishnu”. How is it that such (a great god like) Vishnu always pays obeisance to Bhava (Siva)?
8Suta said: Thus addressed, Vayu spoke to Savarni, “O Sage, an excellent question has been aptly asked by you.
9-10Listen (attentively) as I explain in detail, how it was that Rudra became the son of Brahma, how Brahma was born of the lotus, how Sankara became Rudra, how there is such an intense love between Vishnu and Rudra and why Vishnu always bows to Siva. I shall explain it in due order.
11O excellent Brahmana, after the dissolution of the last Manvantara, the seventh Kalpa called Padma came to an end. The current Kalpa is Varaha. I shall narrate it in detail.”
12Savarni enquired: After what period of time, does the Kalpa begin? What is the duration of a Kalpa? Please explain to me; I am curious to know.
13Vayu replied: I shall mention in due order the duration of the periods of the seven Manvantaras. Understand as I explain it briefly.
14Two thousand eight hundred and sixty-two crores and seventy Niyutas (millions) of years constitute a Kalpa. While calculating the years of half a Kalpa, this was spoken (before).
15The multiplier and the division too have been mentioned before. The surplus of years would be one hundred and seventy-eight crores, two hundred thousand, and nine crores.
16Upto Vaivasvata Manvantara, this should be known as the period of Kalpa according to human calculation. Half a Kalpa is multiplied by two.
17This alone is the time limit for the seven future Kalpas. It shall be known as the view of the Lord himself.
18The time limit is fifty-eight million and eight thousand. Another eighty-four shall be included in this.
19The seven sages, Devas with Indra as their leader and Manu—The surplus years of this time limit should be known accordingly.
20Thus their Manvantara-ending with human beings has been narrated. The Devas ending with Pranava (Vishnu), Sadhyas, Deva-ganas and Visvedevas live for the whole of the Kalpa.
21The Kalpa that is current is called Varaha. It consists (of the rule) of fourteen Manus beginning with Svayambhuva.
22The sages said: Why is the Varaha Kalpa proclaimed by that name? What is the reason that the Lord is glorified as Varaha (Boar).
23Who is lord Varaha? What is his origin? What is his nature? Why was he born? We wish to know this.
24-25Vayu replied: I shall explain all this according as I have seen and heard, (as to) how Varaha was born and what the object was (of his incarnation), how this Kalpa came to be called Varaha, what Kalpa is and what is the conception (called Kalpa), what is the transitional period between two Kalpas.
26-27aBhava is proclaimed as the first Kalpa in the beginning of the world. It should be known that Lord Ananda
himself abides here at present (then). This was the celestial seat of Brahma obtained (by him). It was of divine origin.
27b-34The second Kalpa was Bhuva; the third one was called Tapas. Bhava (?) should be known as the fourth (Kalpa); the fifth was Rambha; the sixth Kalpa was Ritu; the seventh is remembered as Kratu; the eighth was Vahni; the ninth was Havya-vahana; Savitra was the tenth Kalpa. The eleventh (Kalpa) was called Bhuva (?); the twelfth was Usika; the thirteenth was Kusika. The fourteenth was Gandharva when Gandhara as a musical note of the gamut came into existence and Gandharvas were born. O Brahmanas, Risabha should be known as the fifteenth Kalpa when world-enchanting note of the gamut Rsabha was born. The world-fascinating (musical) note Sadja was the sixteenth Kalpa when six (types of men? or) sages were born. The six seasons viz.: Sisira (the Winter), Vasanta (the Spring), the Summer, the Rainy season, the Autumn (Sarad) and the Hemanta (the cold season in Margasirsa and Pausa months) are the mental sons of god Brahma. These sons born of the note Sadja were born in the sixteenth Kalpa. As the Lord Mahesvara was born along with those six, the musical note Sadja was born of him. The musical note Sadjais (deep and loud) like the (sound of the) ocean.
35The seventeenth Kalpa is known as Marjaliya since Marjaliya is that activity from which the world of Brahma is created.
36The eighteenth Kalpa was Madhyama wherein the note of music of the gamut Madhyama honoured by the note of musical scale called Dhaivata arose in all beings from the self-born deity (Brahma).
37Then, the nineteenth Kalpa, was Vairajaka, where lord Vairaja, son of Brahma, was the Manu.
38His son was the pious, righteous Dadhici. He, the refulgent Prajapati, became the lord of Devas.
39As Prajapati Dadhici was engaged in sacrifice, Gayatri was enamoured of him. From that was born the charming musical note (Nishada) as a son to Dadhici.
40-42The twentieth Kalpa is glorified after him as Nishada, on seeing him (born), Prajapati desisted from creating (beings). Inorder to create progeny Nishada performed a penance for one thousand divine years without taking any food and with his senses controlled (who had thus conquered his sense-organs) . The refulgent Brahma, the grandfather of the worlds, said, “sit down” as the former was standing with arms lifted up, hungry and thirsty, dejected and exhausted with penance. Since Brahma told this quiescent son to sit down, he came to be known as Nishada,) the note of the gamut (endowed with Nishada restfulness?).
43-45O Brahmanas, the twentyfirst Kalpa should be known as Pahcama. (In this) Prana, Apana, Samana,Udana and Vyana (the five vital airs) were the mental sons of god Brahma and were on par with him. The great Lord was worshipped by them with eulogistic words. As he was praised in chorus by those noble-souled ones, the fifth note (Pahcama) of the gamut became melodious. Hence the Kalpa became known as Pahcama.
46The twenty-second Kalpa should be known as Meghavahana when the mighty-armed Vishnu became a cloud and carried the hide-clad lord (Siva) for a thousand divine years.
47From the mouth (of Vishnu) who was overwhelmed by burden and was gasping for breath, out came Kala (Time) of huge dimensions, the illuminator of the world. Hence he is declared by Brahmanas as Vishnu, the son of Kasyapa.
48-49The twenty-third Kalpa should be known as Gintaka. Citi was the glorious son of Prajapati. As Brahma was meditating on the twins—Citi and Cinta were born. Hence the Kalpa was designated as Cintaka by the self-born loid.
50The twenty-fourth Kalpa is called Akuti. Akuti and Devi were twins.
51Since Prajapati asked Akuti to create progeny, he should be regarded a man, and the Kalpa was named after him.
52The twenty-fifth Kalpa was Vijnati. Goddess (his spouse) and Vijnati gave birth to twins.
53While he was meditating in mind, being desirous of a son, spiritual knowledge dawned upon him. Hence he came to be called Vijnati.
54The twenty-sixth Kalpa was Manas. Goddess Sankari gave birth to twins.
55While he thought of the subjects and desired to create them, a conception (Bhavana) arose in his mind. Since he was created by god Brahma for procreating the subjects, he is therefore, remembered as Bhavana-Sambhava due to the creation of subjects.
56The twenty-seventh Kalpa is designated as Bhava. Goddess Paurnamasi gave birth to twins.
57-58While Brahma, the great god (Paramesthin), desirous of creating the subjects was meditating on the great Atman Isvara, Agni (Fire god) became a circular sphere surrounded by clusters of rays. Huge-bodied as he was, he enveloped the earth and firmament and blazed.
59-61At the end of a thousand years, when the sphere of light was complete, he saw the sphere of the sun risen overpowering it. Since the lord sun of complete sphere invisible to (all) beings was seen by Brahma Paramesthin and since the Yogas, and Mantras revived and rose along with the sphere and since this was seen, the Kalpa was called Darsa.
62Since lord Soma (the full Moon) filled up the mind of Brahma Paramesthin, it is known as Paurnamasi.
63Therefore Parva days, new moon and full moon days were accepted by Yogis as the most important days in both the fortnights for the achievement of their interest (desired object).
64Those (persons) of twice-born castes who perform the Darsa and Paurnamasa sacrifice, have never to return from the region of Brahma (to Samsara).
65-66One who without having maintained the sacrificial fires dies or one who goes along the path of heroes (meets death on the battlefield) should stabilise his mind and repeat this Mantra1 slowly— “O Agni, you are Rudra, Asura. You are the earth and heaven. You are Siva. When urged, you rule over the breath. You are the sun. You sever our noose with your sword and blaze.” A twice-born person should repeat this mantra well, within his mind. If he then enters the fire, he goes to the region of Rudra.
67The Sruti declares that fire is the moon and the lord Kala and Rudra, hence he who enters fire does not return from Rudra.
68-69The twenty-eighth Kalpa is known as Brihat, while god Brahma, desirous of sons and procreating the subjects, mentally meditated on Brihat and Rathantara Samans, the Brihat Saman came out with faces all round. Hence the meditators on truth call this Kalpa Brihat.
70Rathantara shall be known as the great sphere of the sun extending to eighty-eight thousand Yojanas. Therefore the (cosmic) egg-like sphere of the sun should be known as impenetrable.
71The Brihatsaman pierces the sphere of the sun. Brahmanas of firm vows, fixing their Atmans in Yoga, break through this sphere and achieve the goal. Rathantara includes other Kalpas collectively.
72Thus the spiritual philosophy of diverse nature has been narrated by me. Henceforward, I shall explain the details of Kalpas.