Four Stages of Life ||8||

1Suta said: After spending a period of time equal to a thousand Yugas as his night, he assumes Brahma hood, at the end of the night, for the purpose of creation.
2When the mobile and immobile beings had already perished, Brahma assumed the form of wind and moved about in the water, (enveloped) in darkness.
3-6When the surface of the earth had been completely covered by the water, when the elements remained undivided and undifferentiated, the self-born lord, surveying everything, moved about like the glow-worm at night during the rainy season. Seeking a means for putting it back in position after knowing that the earth is immersed in water, he became enlightened by means of inference (as to the way) of lifting up the earth. He created another body which he recollected (as having been assumed) in the previous Kalpas.
7On seeing the earth fully engulfed in waters, he entered the waters after assuming the form of a Boar.
8After lifting up the earth from the waters, he deposited the waters of the oceans in the oceans, of the rivers in the rivers and of the earth on the earth. Then he collected the mountains.
9When the previous creation was being burnt by the Samvartaka, fire of dissolution, the mountains lay destroyed and (scattered) all over the earth.
10In that one vast ocean, the (solidified) waters tossed by wind got collected together due to cold. Wherever they were (thus) stuck (heaped) together, there they became immovable.
11The mountains are called Acalas because they become motionless after being dried up and solidified. Because they have knots and joints, they are called Parvatas. They are called Giris because they were swallowed by waters. They are called Siloccayas because they are collected.
12Then, after lifting up the earth from within the waters, the Lord established it in its position again and made division in it.
13In each of its seven continents, he made seven Varsas (sub-continents). He levelled the uneven places and collected the mountains, with (heaps of) rocks.
14There are forty (?) Varsas in all the continents together. There are as many mountains also stationed at the extremities of the Varsas. They were assembled there at the beginning of creation according to their nature and not otherwise.
15The seven continents and the (seven) oceans encircle each other. They are in contiguity with each other’s, surrounding each other naturally.
16Even at the outset, Brahma created all these stations, the four worlds, viz. Bhuh etc., the sun, the moon and planets.
17-19Formerly at the beginning of this Kalpa, Brahma created the Sthanins (presiding deities or occupants of these posts). He created waters, fire, earth, wind, ether, heaven, elysium, quarters, oceans, rivers, mountains, the souls of medicinal herbs, the souls of trees, creepers, units of time, Lavas, Kasthas, Kalas, Muhurtas, junctions (of night and day or twilight), night, day, fortnight, months, Ayartas (transits of the sun), years and yugas.
20He created separately the abodes as well as the occupants presiding therein (who identified themselves with the abodes). After creating the “souls” for these “posts”, he created the (serial) order of Yugas.
21They are Krita, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. In the beginning of the Kalpa, during the first Kritayuga, he created the subjects (beings).
22The subjects of the previous ages who have been mentioned to you by me, were burnt by the Samvartaka fire then in the Kalpa that was coming to an end.
23Those who could not reach Tapoloka, had resorted to the Janaloka. They began to function as seeds for the future creation.
24Abiding there, in the form of seeds for the subsequent creation, they, on being let loose (scattered) serve the purpose of progeny.
25The subjects, Devas, Pitris, sages and Manus are those who accomplish (the four Purusarthas viz.) virtue (Dharma), wealth (Artha), pleasure (Kama), and salvation (Moksa).
26Being endowed with Penance thereafter, they fill up (occupy) the stations. As the mental sons of Brahma, they woRik as accomplished souls.
27The created beings who have attained heaven through subversive rites are reborn (repeatedly) in every Yuga.
28Due to the residue of the fruits of their actions, they become well-known with their souls inclined in that manner. They descend from the Janaloka due to the bondage of the Karmans.
29It is the intention, the feelings of the mind that should be regarded as the cause, in regard to the activities. The people descend from Janaloka due to their good and bad activities (in their previous lives).
30They take up different forms of bodies in different wombs (species) from Devas to immobile beings. They are born of one another successively.
31Being created again and again, they pursue those activities which they had been pursuing before.
32They pursue violent or non-violent, soft or ruthless, virtuous or evil, truthful or false activities on being urged by those previous innate feelings which appeal to them.
33Whatever names and forms (these beings have) in the past Kalpa, they mostly receive the same in the future Kalpas.
34They assume those very names and forms again and again. They are born in the different Kalpas with the same names and forms.
35-36When Brahma who was desirous of creation got his creative activity obstructed, He, of truthful contemplation, began to contemplate on the subjects. He created a thousand pairs from his mouth. With the quality of Sattva predominant, they, of good mind, were suitable for the task.
37He created another thousand pairs from his chest. These had the quality of passion (Rajas) predominant and were fiery and impatient.
38He created another thousand couples from his thighs. Passion (Rajas) and Ignorance (Tamas) were predominant in them. They were ambitious and aspirant.
39He created another thousand couples from his feet. They had ignorance (Tamas) predominant in them. They were inglorious and deficient in brilliance.
40-42The living beings born of these pairs were passionate. Being lustful, they began to copulate with one another. Thenceforward procreation from pairing originated in this Kalpa. Women did not have their menstrual courses month by month. Then they did not conceive, even when copulated. They brought forth pairs of children once at the end of life.
43They gave birth to crooked offspring (?), when they had desire for death. From that time onward pairing originated in this Kalpa.
44Even by contemplating once mentally, the subjects had created for them, the five objects of senses such as sound, each of which was of five characteristics in the pure form.
45In this way the previous creation by god Brahma was through his mind (mental activity). Those who were born in his race have filled the world.
46The people in that age resorted to rivers, lakes, oceans and mountains. The waters in that Yuga were neither too hot nor too cold.
47They usually took the diet of the juicy food of the earth. They moved about wherever they pleased. They had acquired mental Siddhis.
48In that Krita age, there was neither virtue nor evil. The human beings were non-differentiated. They had equal longevity, happiness and beauty (form).
49In the beginning of the Kalpa, in the Krita age, neither virtue (Dharma) nor evil (Adharma) existed. The people were born with their respective authority and rights.
50The first Krita age consisted of four thousand divine years. They say that the period of transition consisted of four hundred divine years.
51Even when thousands of human beings spread they had no obstruction, no clash and no order.
52They had no fixed abode or place of resort. They wandered about mountains and oceans. They were free from sorrow. They had abundant goodness. They were happy in solitude.
53They moved about as they pleased. They were always joyous in their minds. There were no animals, birds or reptiles then.
54There were no trees or plants nor hellish beings born of evil. There were neither roots nor fruits nor flowers nor the seasons nor the years.
55Time was always pleasant when peoples’ desires were fulfilled. There; were no extremes in heat or cold. Whatever object they desired in their minds was available everywhere and at all times.
56Whatever juices they meditated upon, grew up from the earth. Their achievements were conducive to strength, fair complexion and destructive of ailments.
57With their bodies requiring no decoration (or beautification), the subjects had eternal youth. Pairs of children were born from their pure mental conception.
58They were born alike and they died together. They had similar forms and features. At that time, there was truth, absence of greed, forbearance, contentment, happiness and restraint.
59They had no distinguishing marks in their forms and features, longevity, conduct and activity. Their actions were spontaneous and voluntary, without the intercession of intellect.
60In the Kritayuga, there was no inclination towards performance of good or evil actions. There was no classification of castes or differentiation in stages of life. Nor was there intermixture of castes.
61In their mutual dealings they behaved without being impelled by desire or hatred. All of them, had equal forms, features and longevity. There was neither superior nor inferior class of people.
62Only those who were mostly happy and devoid of sorrow were born in the Krita Yuga. They were highly powerful, very strong and perpetually delighted in the mind.
63They had neither gain nor loss; neither friends nor foes; neither likes nor dislikes, since they were devoid of desires. The objects functioned according to their minds. They neither desired to possess nor favoured one another.
64It has been said that in the Krita age meditation was the highest; in Treta it was knowledge; in Dvapara it was sacrifice, while charity (donation) is excellent in Kali age.
65In accordance with practice obtaining in the different ages, goodness (Sattva) predominates in Krita, passion (Rajas) in Treta, passion (Rajas) and Ignorance (Tamas) in Dvapara and only ignorance (Tamas) in the Kali Yuga.
66As for the duration of Krita age, know that four thousand divine years constitute its duration.
67The duration of eight hundred divine years constitutes its two junctions (interim periods). Then the people had longevity and suffered no pain or adversity.
68In the Krita age, when the interim period (between Krita and Treta) passes off, only one fourth of the entire yuga-dharma (characterising the Krita age) remains.
69When the period of junction is over at the end of the age, the Dharma of the period of junction remains but one- fourth. When the Krita age lapses completely without any remnant, the spiritual achievement (of Krita age) too vanishes.
70When the mental Siddhi (of Krita age) is lost, another comes into being in the Treta Yuga.
71The eight mental perfections in the beginning of the creation, mentioned by me, decline gradually and are lost.
72In the beginning of the Kalpa, in the Krita age, this attainment is only mental. In all the Manvantaras in accordance with the division of the four Yugas, the attainment is due to the holy rites, due to the pursuit of the conduct of life of the respective castes and stages of life.
73When the Krita age passes off thus, one-fourth of the Dharma is lost in the first junction, another one-fourth during the lapse of the main Yuga and a third one-fourth in the later junction. Thus three fourth of the power of penance, strength and longevity gets lost.
74-76O excellent sages, when a portion of Krita has lapsed, then in the Treta, another age, a portion of Krita remains. When that portion has also lapsed at the advent of Treta in the beginning of Kalpa, the attainments of the remaining subjects become defunct due to efflux of time and not due to any other reason. When one attainment (Siddhi) disappears, another takes its place.
77When water becomes subtle, cloud is formed. The creation of rain showers functions through the thundering clouds.
78When the surface of the earth is drenched with rain only once; the trees begin to manifest themselves for their abodes.
79All the necessary objects of enjoyments emanated from them (the trees). In the beginning of Treta, people subsisted on them (i.e. the products of trees).
80Then after the lapse of a long time, due to their own perversity the emotions of lust and greed possessed them suddenly.
81The menstrual flow that used to take place only at the end of life in the case of women then (in Krita Yuga), ceased to be so due to the power of the (new, Treta) Yuga.
82In their case, the menstruation began to take place every month. As a consequence, thereof, they indulged in copulation the same way.
83When the flow took this turn and when they copulated every month, the untimely menstrual flow and conception began to happen.
84On account of their perversity and due to what was destined to happen in course of time, all the trees in their house (or which were like their houses) perished.
85When these were destroyed, the people became excited and agitated in all their senses. They, of truthful thought, began to meditate on that mental Siddhi.
86The trees manifested in their houses again. They yielded clothes, fruits and ornaments.
87Invigorating honey without the bees, possessing sweet taste, scent and colour, exuded in them in every leaf cup.
88They maintained themselves with that honey at the beginning of the Treta age. They were delighted and contented with that Siddhi. They were free from ailments.
89As time elapsed, they were overcome with greed once again. They forcibly took possession of trees and extracted from them the nectar (of flowers) and honey.
90Due to this misdemeanour committed by the people, the wish-yielding trees perished at some places along with honey.
91When the period of junction remained but little, due to the passage of time, there arose extremes of climate (e.g. scorching heat and extreme cold).
92They were terribly distressed by the extremes of biting winds and scorching sunshine. Being afflicted by these they made shelters.
93Warding off Dvandvas (pairs of opposites) of heat and cold, they resorted to abodes. Formerly, they had been roaming about as they pleased, without a fixed habitation.
94Now according to circumstances and their liking, they stayed in abodes, wildernesses, deserts, deep chasms, on hills, mountains or riversides. They resorted to fortresses, dry soils and waste lands with perpetual supply of water.
95In order to ward off heat and cold, they made habitations in level and rugged lands in accordance with the availability and their taste.
96Then they set up hamlets, villages and towns with due alignment and built harems too.
97-98The measure of their length and diameter was fixed by them. They built houses on this basis just as they thought fit. A unit was termed Pradesa—a distance between the (extended) thumb and the (outstretched) forefinger. The distance between the thumb and the middle finger (when both are stretched) was Tala and that between the thumb and the ring finger was Gokarna.
99The distance between the thumb and the little finger (when both are stretched) was called Vitasti. It contained twelve Angulas (fingerbreadths). Twenty-one Angulas made one Ratni (the distance between the elbow and the closed fist).
100Twenty-four Angulas made one Hasta (hand). Two Ratnis or forty-two Angulos made one Kisku.
101Four Hastas qt two Nalikas made one Dhanus or Danda. Two thousand Dhanus or Dandas made one Gavyuti.
102Eight thousand Dhanus constituted a Yojana. It is on the basis of the Yojana calculation that the sites were fixed then.

12 Angulas = 1 Vitasti
21 Angulas = 1 Ratni
24 Angulas = 1 Hasta
2 Ratnis or 42 Angulas = 1 Kisku
4 Hastas or 2 Nalikas = 1 Dhanus or Danda
2000 Dhanus or Dandas = 1 Gavyuti
8000 Dhanus or Dandas = 1 Yojana

103Of the four types of fortifications, three occur naturally. The fourth kind of fortress is artificial. I shall describe the mode of its construction.
104Huge mansions, lofty ramparts and fort-walls are built around. There is a principal gate called Svastika and there is a gynaecium in which maidens are kept (Kumaripura).
105The (main) gate is close to a moat with flowing water current. The width of the moat is the best if (it is) eight or ten hands. Others opine that nine or eight hands (in width) is the best.
106-107(I shall mention the dimensions) of hamlets, cities and villages and three types of forts, viz. mountains, waters (rivers) and constructed (artificially by) men. The diameter shall be half a Yojana. Its length should be one and one-eighth of a Yojana.
108-109A city that extends to the east or north is the most excellent. Its extent shall be half or one-fourth of the maximum length. It should be divided into a hypotenuse and segments and be laid out in the shape of a fan. A city planned circularly or merely lengthwise (with little breadth) or deficient in (amenities) is not recommendable. A city set up in the form of a square with straight rows of houses in all the eight quarters is desirable.
110The minimum width of a dwelling is twenty-four Hastas and the maximum is eight hundred Hastas. But they praise a middle one which is neither too narrow nor too wide.
111Important dwellings shall be constructed in a site eight hundred Kishkus wide. A hamlet has half the diameter of the city and a village is bigger than that.
112A hamlet shall be situated a Yojana away from a city and a village shall be half a Yojana away from a hamlet. Two Krosas is the maximum boundary. The boundary of a field is four Dhanus.
113The highway shall be twenty Dhanus wide. The main road in the village shall also be twenty Dhanus wide. But the road in the borderland shall be only ten Dhanus wide.
114The main road shall be excellent if it is ten Dhanus wide. The movement of the traffic of people (pedestrians), horses, elephants and chariots should be without hindrance.
115Branch roads should be four Dhanus wide. The roads connecting dwelling houses and side roads shall be two Dhanus wide.
116The “bell-road”, i.e. the main road in a village, should be four steps wide; the space between two dwellings shall consists of three steps or paces. The side roads shall be half a pace wide. The way to the sacrificial room shall be a pace wide.
117The dustbin shall be a pace wide. The gutters on either side of the road shall be a pace wide. They made a layout and built houses afterwards.
118Thinking and recollecting again and again they began to grow trees in the places in which they stood formerly.
119The trees had branches going upwards and spreading around. They never receded. In the same way, the branches spread in all directions (lit. obliquely) in former times.
120They observed carefully how the branches had gone. They constructed the apartments in accordance with the growth of the branches (sakhas). Hence, they had been called Salas.
121Thus Salas (apartments) became well known from branches; so also, the abodes. Hence, they are remembered as “Salas”. Thus, is explained their state of being Salas (Salatva).
122The mind is delighted in them. They delight the mind. Hence the houses, halls and mansions are duly termed as prasadas.
123After warding off the Dvandvas (the pairs of mutual opposites, viz. heat and cold), they began to think of the means of their sustenance (such as agriculture). When the Kalpa-trees had perished along with the honey, they were overwhelmed by hunger and thirst and became bewildered and dejected.
124Thereafter, in the Treta age, a Siddhi (accomplishment) appeared before them. The means of agriculture that could meet their ends came as they desired.
125The waters showered (from the sky) which flowed downwards became srotas (river, stream). And waters flowing in ditches or excavated places are known as Nimnagas (down flowing).
126-127Thus in the second creation through rain, the rivers came into being. What little of water remained on the surface of the earth, thereafter, became mixed with earth and grew into plants and herbs. Plants began to put forth flowers, fruits and roots.
128Fourteen kinds of trees and bushes which grew up in the villages and forests without ploughing or burning, put forth seasonal flowers and fruit.
129It was in the Treta age that vegetation manifested first and the medicinal plants appeared. The people in the Treta age maintained themselves on the products of agriculture.
130Then again all of them were overwhelmed with lust and greed as a result of unavoidable fate or due to the Treta age.
131They then forcibly occupied the rivers, fields, mountains, trees, clusters and medicinal plants.
132While describing the Prakrita Sarga, I have spoken about the accomplished souls. These were born as human beings according to Brahma’s plan.
133They were quiescent, powerful, active and distressed. Then, thus functioning they were born again in the Treta age.
134Urged by the auspicious and inauspicious activities of the previous births they were born as Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras and Dasyus.
135-137Those who were truthful, non-violent, devoid of greed and self-controlled lived therein. There were others deficient in brilliance, who served these in return for the gifts they received from them. Thus there was mutual dependence. Due to their fault, the medicinal plants disappeared while they were looking on helplessly. They vanished as sand particles in handfuls.
138The earth, due to the power of the Yuga, swallowed the fourteen kinds of plants both in villages and forests—the plants which bore fruit through flowers and flowers with leaves.
139When these were destroyed, the people became bewildered. On being overwhelmed by hunger they approached Lord Svayambhu, Prajapati.
140-141(It was) at the beginning of Treta Yuga. The self-born lord Brahma, knowing that they wanted the means of sustenance, considered what was proper by observing directly. Realising that the medicinal plants were swallowed by the earth he milked them out again (from the earth).
142Making mount Meru as the calf, he milked the earth. The earth-cow yielded the seeds on its surface.
143The seeds grew into wild and cultivated plants yielding ripe fruits. They comprised seventeen classes.
144-146Rice, barley, wheat, the minute gingelly seeds, the Priyangus, Udaras,Karusas, Tinakas (different kinds of pulse etc.), black gram, green gram, Masuras (a pulse), Nispavas, horse grams, Adhakis (the pulse cajanus Indicus spring), and other grams. These are the seventeen varieties of rural medicinal plants (Gramya osadhi). Then there are fourteen kinds of plants used in sacrifices.
147They are: rice, barley, black gram, wheat, anus (panicum Miliaceurri), gingelly seeds, Priyahgu the seventh among them and horse-gram the eighth.
148-149Syamakas (a variety of rice), Nivaras (another variety of rice), Jartilas (wild sesamum), Gavedhukas, Kuruvindas (a kind of barley), Venuyavas (bamboo seeds) and MaRikatakas (a species of grain) —these are the fourteen varieties of wild and cultivated plants. They were originally produced in the beginning of the Treta age.
150All these medicinal plants, trees, hedges, creepers and grasses grew in villages and forests without the fields being ploughed.
151The seeds that were milked from the earth at the outset by the self-born god Brahma grew into various fruits and flowers.
152-153They grew into plants yielding seasonal flowers and fruits. When they let go (the seasonal product once) they did not grow again. The self-born Brahma then devised for the livelihood of the people by means of agriculture.
154From that time onwards the plants began to grow on being (ploughed and) cultivated. Thus when agriculture came into vogue the self-born lord established conventions for their mutual help.
155Those who were masters (powerful ones) had (to follow) prescribed conventions and established them (as) Kshattriyas for the protection of others.
156Those who worship (or respect or obey) those (Kshatriyas) are free from fear. Those who averred that Brahman is the truth and spoke according to facts (the truth) are Brahmanas.
157Those who were weak were assigned the duty of Vaishyas. They became the cultivators of the soil. Formerly they used to destroy things in the earth. They are called Vaishyas as they maintain their livelihood by soil and cultivation.
158Those who were engaged in serving others, those who were lustreless and deficient in virility he called Sudras because they bewailed their lot, were miserable and adopted crooked ways.
159Lord Brahma assigned their duties and virtues when the system of castes was thus established.
160Out of delusion the people did not follow their duties. Not observing the (special) duties of castes, they clashed mutually.
161On realising that precisely, lord Brahma ordered strength, punishment and warfare as the means of sustenance for the Kshatriyas.
162The lord assigned these as the duties of Brahmanas: presiding over sacrifice, teaching of the Vedas and the acceptance of monetary gifts.
163The lord assigned breeding of cattle, trading and agriculture to the Vaishyas. He made the practice of arts and crafts as means of livelihood and service the duties of Sudras.
164The duties common to the three classes—Brahmanas Kshatriyas and Vaishyas include the performance of sacrifice, study of the Vedas and making gifts.
165After prescribing the holy rites and duties as the means of livelihood, the lord gave them suitable regions in the other worlds achievable by means of Siddhi.
166The region of the Brahmanas who performed their sacred rites and duties is the world of Prajapati. The world of Indra is the region for Kshatriyas who flee not in battle.
167The region of Maruts is assigned to Vaishyas who maintain themselves as per their (ordained) duties. To the Sudras who abide by their duty of rendering service, the region of Gandharvas is assigned.
168These are the regions for different castes who observe their prescribed duties. When the castes were thus stabilised, he established the Asramas.
169Formerly, the Lord established the four Asramas, viz. Brahmacarin (the religious student), Grihastha (the householder), Vanaprastha (the recluse) and Bhiksuka (the ascetic mendicant).
170Those who do not practise the duties assigned to their caste, they say, incurred the loss of the (fruit of) holy rites even if they maintained the activities of the Asramas.
171Brahma established these Asramas by name. In order to guide them, he spoke to them about their duties, manners, restraints and observances.
172The Asrama of the householder is common to all the four castes. This stage is the very basis and support of the other three Asramas. I shall explain it in order along with the observances and restraints.
173The following are briefly the religious duties of the householders: Marriage, maintenance of the sacred fire, hospitality to guests, performance of sacrifices and continuation of the race (procreation of children).
174The characteristic duties of a Brahmacarin are: (bearing) the staff, wearing the girdle (of muhja grass), sleeping on the bare ground, having matted hair, service to the preceptor and begging alms.
175Wearing of bark garments, leaves or deer skin, diet of grains, roots, fruits or herbs (found in the forest), bathing at dawn and dusk and performing sacrifice are the characteristics of a forest-dweller.
176-177Begging when the sound of pestles dies down, no stealing, purity, non-negligence, refraining from sexual intercourse, mercy towards (all) beings, forbearance, absence of anger (control of temper), service to preceptors and the tenth truthfulness—This code of conduct of ten characteristics has been prescribed by the self-born god (Brahma).
178Five (of the above) are the main observances and five subsidiaries which constitute the sacred rites of the mendicant ascetic. Purity in the conduct of life, restraints, purity of the mind, counteraction of evil deeds and perfect vision—these are the five subsidiary sacred rites.
179They say that the holy course of conduct (dharma) of a man of renunciation consists of meditation (samadhi), control of the mind and of the sense-organs, silence, taking of food voluntarily offered by others and endeavour for liberation (from samsara).
180-181All these stages of life have been declared by Brahma himself for the achievement of ultimate good. Truthfulness, straightforwardness, austerities, forbearance, Yogic sacrifice preceded by control of senses, study of the Vedas and their ancillaries, sacrifices, holy observances and restraints do not bear fruit if there is fault in emotions and if one is defiled.
182If a person is defiled in inner emotions, all his external actions never bear fruit even if he puts in his utmost effort.
183Even if a person donates all his possessions but with an impious inner soul, he shall not be virtuous. Piety is the true cause of perfection.
184It is said that the region attained by the persons who abide by this Dharma is that of the Devas, Pitris, sages and Manus.
185There are eighty-eight thousand sages of sublimated sexuality. It is their region that is assigned to those who live with their teachers.
186The sphere of the seven sages is the abode of heaven dwellers. Prajapatya (the region of Prajapati) is the sphere of householders. The region of Brahma is the abode for Sannyasins. The region of immortality is the abode for the Yogins. There is no abode for those who have mental worries.
187-188These are the regions for the people of different stages of life who abide by their allotted duties. The four paths called Devayana have been made by Brahma, the controller of the worlds in the first Manvantara on the earth. These paths lead to the region of Devas. The sun is remembered as the doorway to these paths.
189-190Similarly the moon is the doorway to Pitriyana (the path of the Pitris). When these divisions of castes and stages of life were made but when the people did not abide by their injunctions, he evolved another mental creation from his own body which was like himself.
191When the first Treta age reached the middle period, gradually he began to create another mind-born progeny.
192Then the lord created beings with (predominant) Sattva and Rajas Gunas. They were competent to accomplish virtue, love, wealth, liberation and their means of livelihood.
193He created Devas, Pitris, sages and Manus (i.e. human beings) who were suitable for the Yuga. They have procreated these subjects as per Dharma.
194When the subjects abided by the Dharma prescribed by the self-born lord (Brahma) he meditated on the, mind-born beings of different forms.
195The persons who have been mentioned to you by me, as having resorted to Janaloka became devas and other subjects here, when the (previous) Kalpa passed away.
196-198While he meditated, the subjects appeared before him for creation. In the order of the Manvantaras, they are considered the first or the last. They are imbued with the knowledge of discrimination, adjuncts and topics. Endowed with efficient and inefficient activities, they are restrained by the residue of the fruit of their actions. They attain the state of devas, A suras, Pitris, animals, birds, reptiles, trees, hellish beings and insects. He created them to be subservient to himself and his subjects.