Movement of Dhruva ||52||

1Suta said: That chariot is occupied by the Devas, Adityas, Sages, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Gramanis (Yaksas), Serpents and Rakshasas.
2-5The following reside in the Sun in succession for a period of two months each. Among them (gods) Dhatr, Aryarna, (sages) Pulastya, Pulaha the Prajapati, the Serpents (Nagas) Vasuki and Sankirnara, (Gandharvas) Tumburu and Narada, the foremost among the singing Gandharvas, the Apsaras, Kratusthali and Punjikasthali, Gramanis or Yaksas Rathakricchra, Taporya (?), Rakshasas and Yatudhanas Heti and Praheti—these reside in the Sun during the months of Madhu and Madhava (i.e. Caitra and Vaisakha). [These are the months in the season Vasanta (the Spring)].
6-8During the months of Suci and Sukra (i.e. Jyestha and Asadha), the months of the season grisma (summer), the following reside in the Sun: (gods) Mitra, Varuna; (sages) Atri, Vasistha; (Nagas) Taksaka, Rambha; (Apsaras) Menaka, Sahajanya; Gandharvas Haha and Huhu; Gramanis (Yaksas) Rathasvana and Rathacitra; and Yatudhanas (Demons) Pauruseya and Dhava (Vadha in Bd. P.).
9-11Then during the months of Nabhas and Nabhasya (i.e. Sravana and Bhadrapada) the (following) other deities reside in the Sun: (gods) Indra and Vivasvan. So also (sages) Arigiras, Bhrigu; the two Nagas Elaparna and Sankhapala; (Gandharvas) Visvavasu and Ugrasena, Pratah and Aruna; Apsaras-s Pramloca and Nimloca; the Yatudhana Vyaghra; and the Naga Sveta.
12-15During the autumn, in the months of Isa and Urja (i.e. Asvina and Karttika) noble sages and deities occupy the Sun: (gods) Parjanya and Pusan; (sages) Bharadvaja and Gautama; Gandharvas Visvavasu and Suiabhi; the two Apsaras-s of auspicious characteristics Visvaci and Ghrtaci; the famous Serpents Airavata and Dhananjaya; the leaders of armies and Gramanis Senajit and Susena; and the two Yatudhanas Apa and Vata.
16-19During the two months of Saha and Sahasya (i.e. Margasirsa and Pausa), the two months of early winter, the following reside in the Sun: (gods) Amsa and Bhaga; the sages Kasyapa and Rtu; the two Senanis and Gramanis TaRiksya and Aristanemi; the two fierce Yatudhanas Vidyut and Sphurja; and the Nagas Mahapadma and KaRikotaka; the two Gandharvas Citrasena and Urnayu; and the splendid Apsaras Urvasi and Vipracitti.
20-23During the two months of late winter the following reside in the Sun for two months: (gods) Tvastr and Vishnu; (the sages) Jamadagni and Visvamitra; the two Serpents Kam- bala and Asvatara, the sons of Kadru; the two Gandharvas Dhytarastra and Suryavarcas; the two Apsaras-s Tilottama and splendid Raihbha; the world-famous Gramanis; Rtajit and Satyajit; and the Rakshasas Brahmopeta and Yajnopeta.
24The twelve sets of seven deities (heptads) identifying themselves with their place of residence augment the excellent splendour of the Sun with their extra refulgence.
25With well-known hymns of prayer the sages eulogise the Sun. Gandharvas and Apsaras-s attend upon him with dance and music.
26The Gramanis. Yaksas and Bhutas collect hideous and terrible things. The Serpents bear the Sun and the Yatudhanas follow him. Worshipping the Sun from the time of rising, the sages Valakhilyas lead him to the mountain of Sunset.
27-28The Sun blazes with his brilliance and in accordance with the prowess, penance, Yogic power, truthfulness, righteousness and strength of these deities. These stay with the Sun for (a period of) two months.
29They are the (sets of seven): the Sages, Devas, Gandharvas, Serpents, groups of Apsaras, Gramanis and most of the Yaksas and Yatudhanas.
30On being glorified, these blazes, rain, shine, blow, create, and dispel the inauspicious demerits of living beings.
31They remove the auspicious merit of the wicked people and in some cases remove the sins of mobile beings.
32They are seated in the celestial aerial chariot. They go as they please. They have the velocity of the wind. They revolve along with the Sun and follow him throughout the day.
33Showering rains, blazing and delighting people, they protect living beings till the end of Manvantara.
34This position of the deities (who identify themselves with it) exists in all the Manvantaras in the same manner whether past, present or future.
35These sets of seven reside in the Sun and the space around him in all the fourteen Manvantaras and creations.
36In accordance with the seasons, the Sun changes his rays, releasing heat in the summer, mist and fog in the winter and rain during the rainy season and demarcates day and night. He (thus) propitiates Devas, Pitris and human beings.
37By means of the ray (Susumna), the Sun develops the Moon in the bright half (of the month) day by day and it is complete (full on the full-moon days). Devas imbibe its nectar during the dark half. Thus, he propitiates Devas with the nectar.
38After being sucked thus, the moon has only two Kalas (digits) left. Pitris take it as Kavya offering. Devas and Saumyas consider it as nectar and drink it.
39Men conquer (satisfy) hunger by means of foodstuffs, beverages and medicinal herbs developed by means of rains, with water lifted up and released as rain-showers by means of his rays by the Sun.
40For half a month Devas are propitiated through nectar. For half a month Pitris are propitiated by Svadha food. The Sun sustains human beings perpetually through food. The Sun sustains them through his rays.
41The Sun moves ahead in his chariot of green horses. Through his rays he takes up waters. At the time of their release he discharges them. Thus the Sun sustains the mobile and immobile beings perpetually.
42He is carried by green horses. By means of his thousands of rays he drinks water. While being carried by green horses he showers it again.
43Thus the Sun moves ahead quickly in his celestial sphere by means of his single-wheeled chariot dragged by the unimpaired gentle horses.
44In the course of a day and night he traverses over the world of seven continents and oceans by means of his single wheeled chariot dragged by the seven horses.
45The Vedic metres that have assumed the form of horses are yoked to the chariot near the wheel. They can assume any form they please. They are yoked but once. They have the unlimited speed of the mind.
46They (are accompanied) by tawny coloured masters expounding the Brahman (or the Vedas). They cover one hundred and eighty zones within one year.
47They are yoked in the beginning of the Kalpa. They continue their journey till the final dissolution. They traverse the external and the internal zones day by day. Surrounded by Valakhilyas they wander day and night.
48The Sun is eulogised by the sages through well-known words of prayer. He is served by Gandharvas and Apsaras by means of songs and dances. The lord of the heaven, the Sun thus traverses by means of his horses.
49The Moon too moves among the stars that stay in the pathway of heaven (vithi). The increase and decrease of its rays are similar to the increase and decrease of the Sun.
50-51The chariot of the Moon has three wheels. The horses are tied in pairs on either side. The chariot along with the horses and the charioteer has come out of the womb of the waters. The three wheels have a hundred spokes. Excellent white horses have been yoked thereto. They are ten in number. They are slender and divine. They are unimpeded and have the velocity of the mind. They are yoked but once (in the beginning of the Kalpa) and they travel till the end of the Yugas.
52A white serpent acts as therein in that chariot. All the horses are of the same colour. They carry the conch-coloured Moon.
53-54The names of the ten horses are—Yayu, Trimanas, Visa, Rajivala, Haya, Varna, Turanya, Hamsa, Vyomin and Mrga. They carry the Moon till the close of the day (?)
55-57The gentle Moon goes ahead surrounded by Devas and Pitris. In the beginning of the bright half when the Sun is in front, the interior of the city of the Moon is filled duly every day. The Sun develops the Moon drunk by Devas in the declining fortnight. The Moon is drunk for fifteen days and the Sun replenishes one part every day. Nourished by Susumna the white digits flourish.
58They decline and decrease in the dark half and develop and nourish in the bright half. Thus the body of the Moon is developed fully by the vigour of the Sun.
59Developing gradually in the bright half day by day, the Moon attains completion on the full moon day.
60Beginning with the second day in the dark half and ending with the fourteenth day Devas drink the watery wine, the nectar of the Moon that is essentially made up of water and that by nature consists of tasty essence.
61-62By the brilliance of the Sun the nectar is collected and prepared in the course of a fortnight. On the full moon night Devas, Pitris and the Sages attend the Moon facing the Sun.
63The digits being drunk decline gradually in the dark half and become refilled in the bright half.
64When days pass on gradually Devas drink the Moon for half a month until the new-moon day and go away. On the new-moon day Pitris resort to the Moon.
65When the fifteenth part of the digits is left over in the later part of the day, that part is used up by the groups of Pitris.
66The remaining digit is drunk by Pitris during the period of two Kalas. From the lunar rays the nectar of Svadha comes out on the new-moon night. They drink the nectar and remain content for a month. They attain immortality.
67All these (following) are Pitris: Saumyas, Barhisads, Agnisvattas and Kavyas.
68The years, which are enumerated by Brahmanas as five, are Kavyas. Saumyas should be known as Rtus (Seasons) and Barhisads are remembered as Masas (Months). Agnisvattas are Artavas (Fertility period?) and these are the creations of the Pitris, O Brahmanas.
69-71When the digit is being drunk by Pitris on the fifteenth night i.e. Amavasya, the last digit is left and it is refilled. The increase and decrease of the Moon are on the sixteenth day (at the beginning of each next half). Thus the increase and the decrease of the Moon are caused by the Sun. I shall now mention the increase and decrease of the stars and planets; and also describe the chariot of Rahu later.
72The chariot of the son of the Moon (Budha, Mercury) is bright, full of watery splendour. It is yoked with eight tawny horses and can move as fast as the wind.
73The chariot resembles cloud. It has the frontal fender and the axletree at the bottom. The charioteer is divine and great. It has all the fittings, banner and flagstaff.
74-75The chariot of Bhargava (Venus) is glorious. In refulgence it resembles the Sun. It is yoked with excellent horses born of the earth and having various colours. They are white (tawny), brown, blue, yellow, red, black, green, spotted and variegated. All the ten are highly blessed. They are not lean. They have the speed of the wind.
76The chariot of Mars is glorious and golden. It is yoked with eight red, unimpeded horses. They are born of fire, and they can go everywhere. (Mars) traverses the signs of zodiac in straight, curved and circular lines.
77Then the scholarly preceptor of Devas, Byhaspati (Jupiter) of the family of Angiras, moves ahead in his golden chariot yoked with red horses.
78Eight horses as speedy, as the wind and divine in nature, are yoked to it. In a constellation this planet stays for a year; then he traverses quickly.
79Sanaiscara (Saturn) rides in a chariot made of black iron and traverses slowly. His horses are variegated in colour. They are born of the ether.
80Rahu’s chariot is of Tamasic nature (dark coloured). Eight black horses, as speedy as the mind, are yoked to it.
81Leaving the Sun, Rahu rushes at the Moon during the lunar Parvan (i.e. the Full-Moon). Leaving the Moon it rushes at the Sun during the solar Parvan (i.e. the New-Moon day).
82Horses yoked to the chariot of Ketu are eight. They are as speedy as the wind. They have the colour like smoke from burning, straw. They are strong. They are tawny (and variegated in colour) like donkeys.
83These horses of the planets I have explained along with their chariots. They are fastened to Dhruva by gaseous rays.
84Being fastened by invisible gaseous rays, these (planets) being whirled, revolve in an orderly manner.
85Being bound to Dhruva, the Moon, the Sun and the planets move about in the firmament. The planetary system united to Dhruva follows it as it whirls.
86Just as a boat is carried along by the water in a river, so the abodes of Devas are carried by the gaseous rays. Hence all the groups of Devas are seen in the firmament by everyone.
87There are as many gaseous rays as there are stars. They are tied to Dhruva. They whirl Dhruva and whirl by themselves.
88Just as oil-crushers whirl and cause the wheel (of an oil-mill) to whirl, so also do the luminaries fixed (to Dhruva) on all sides by gaseous rays (bonds).
89They move about like a firebrand on being urged by the whirling wind. Since the wind bears the luminary bodies, it is called Pravaha.
90Thus the cluster of the luminary bodies united to Dhruva traverses the firmament. The Gangetic porpoise-like appearance in the sky made up of the stars is Dhruva. If it is seen in the night, the sin committed during the day is quelled.
91Persons looking at Dhruva regularly live for as many years, or even more, as there are stars in the “Gangetic porpoise” in the firmament.
92This permanent Gangetic porpoise shall be realised in its various divisions. Its upper jaw is known as Uttanapada.
93Its lower jaw is Yajna. Dharma resorts to the top of its head. Narayana abides in its heart and Asvins stay in its forelegs.
94Varuna and Aryaman are its hind thighs. Samvatsara is its penis and Mitra resorts to its anus.
95In its tail are Agni, Mahendra, Marici, Kasyapa and Dhruva. The four stars (?) and the Gangetic porpoise do not set.
96The stars, Moon, Sun, planets and constellations stay in the sky with face up or in front. They are in the form of a wheel.
97These are presided over by Dhruva. They circumambulate Dhruva which acts like the pivotal peg in the firmament.
98Among Dhruva, Agni and Kasyapa Dhruva is the most excellent. It alone whirls round at the top of the mountain Meru.
99With its face downwards it attracts the group of luminaries. Looking at Meru, it circumambulates it.